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redan - definition of redan in English | Oxford Dictionaries
redan - definition of redan in English | Oxford Dictionaries
Swedish Grammar Swedish Grammar Updated in August 2018. This grammar is being written byand is a part of the pages at the academic computer society Lysator at Linköping University in Sweden. Note: this document is far from finished yet. In alphabetical order, these are at the end of the alphabet, in that order. In some foreign words, borrowed from languages which use letters not present in the Swedish alphabet, the foreign letter s are sometimes used, especially when the letters in question are é from French and ü from German. In foreign names, the foreign spelling is practically always used. It would be considered wrong, and somewhat impolite toward the person whose name it is, to spell a name such as André or Günther without the accents, unless there is some practical reason -- such as those letters not existing on the typewriter you're using -- to do it. Some the letters in the Swedish alphabet are pronounced roughly as they would be in English. The others are pronounced as follows: A a is different depending on whether the quantity of the vowel is long or short. When long, the letter is pronounced approximately like the "a" in the English word "far". When short, the letter is pronounced approximately like the "a" in Spanish "casa". The letter "i" is used for that sound. In rare cases, such as "energi" energythe "g" is pronounced roughly like "sj" see below. J j is pronounced as English "y" in "yawn". Never as "j" in "jaw". L l is pronounced almost as in English, except that when the sound is made with the tip of the tongue touching the upper palate the tongue should not be half-curled back, as in English, but straight. Q q is a very rare letter in Swedish since the spelling reform about a century ago. It occurs almost exclusively in names, and a few foreign loan-words most from latinand almost always followed by a "u" or, less often, by a "v". The sound of "qu" or "qv" is equivalent to Swedish "kv". R r is normally pronounced with a very slight quiver of the tongue; more distinct than is normal in English, but not quite as distinct as in German. T t is pronounced almost as in English, except that the tongue should not be half-curled back. That is, not retroflex. For those familiar with the IPA phonetic alphabet, it can be written. W w, as Q, is a rare letter in Swedish, and almost exclusively used in names. It is pronounced as "v", except when used in foreign especially English names, when it is usually pronounced as it would be in the language the name came from e. Y y is pronounced almost as "y" in English names such as "Terry", "Teddy" or "Cheryl", both when long and when short. It is never pronounced as a diphtong like the "y" in "reply". Z z, as Q and W, is a rare letter in Swedish. It is usually pronounced as English "s", but can be pronounced as an English "z" if one wants to emphasise the fact that the word is spelled with a "z", not an "s". As for the other infrequently used letters, in foreign names, the pronunciation is often that of the language the names come from. Å å is pronounced as English "o" in "for". Ä ä is pronounced as English "ai" in "fair", and as a German "ä". Ö ö is pronounced much like German "ö", which is roughly like "u" in English "turn". It can be noted that the "hard" vowels are articulated with the tongue at the back of the mouth, while the "soft" vowels are articulated at the front of the mouth. So the softening of the consonant sound mainly consists in anticipating the fronting of the vowel sound already when pronouncing the consonant that preceeds it. In addition to the single letters, Swedish uses a number of digraphs and trigraphs to spell sounds that lack a letter of their own. In most cases, pronouncing a written Swedish word is fairly straighforward; usually, there is only one way of pronouncing each letter sequence at least if the next following letter is taken into account. The reverse, however, is not always true. Particularly the Swedish spelling of the sounds similar to those written as "sh" in English, and as "sch" and "ch" in German, can be confusing: Sj- as in "sjö" lake"sjunka" to sinkand "själ" soul. This spelling is rather common in originally Swedish words, and rare in loan-words. Usually, "sj" in modern Swedish was "si" plus a vowel in Old Swedish. Sk- as in "sked" spoon"sköta" to take care of, to handle"skina" to shine"skinn" skin, hideand "skäl" a cause, a reason. Common when an e, i, ä or ö follows immediately afterward. Skj- as in "skjuta" push, shoot"skjuts" a 'ride'and "skjul" shed, shack. Usually, "skj" was "ski" + vowel in Old Swedish. Stj- as in "stjäla" to steal"stjälk" stalk of a plant"stjälpa" to tilt something, to tip something over"stjärna" starand "stjärt" posterior, butt. These five words are the only ones in the Swedish language that use the spelling "stj-", and they are sometimes summarised in the mnemonic nonsense proverb " det är lättare att stjäla en stjälk än att stjälpa en stjärna med stjärten" "it's easier to steal a stalk than to tilt a star with your butt". Sch- as in "sch! Primarily used in onomatopoetic words, some names, and German loan-words. Ch- as in "chock" shock. Sh- is frequent in foreign especially English loan-words and names. Examples: "sherry", "Shelley", "shah" Persian ruler. Mostly in French loan-words. Examples: "skräp" trash"skrika" to shout"skata" magpie"sko" shoe"skum" foam"skåp" cupboard. Also, foreign words and names from languages that use some variation of the Latin alphabet, and where this variation includes the addition of a special letter for the "sh" sound, this special letter might be used. Foreign words and names from languages that use other alphabets usually get their "sh" sounds rendered as "sj", "sh" or "sch", depending on what transliteration rules are being used. There are really no simple rules for how to spell the "sh" sound in the general case; it is usually best to try to learn the spelling together with the word. Intonation, Accents, Stress, Pitch Swedish, like most modern Indoeuropean languages, basically has "ictus", or "stress", accent; one "stressed" syllable in a word is emphasised more than the other syllables. Unlike most other modern Indoeuropean languages, but like some of the older ones, Swedish also has a tonal, or pitch, accent. Only two levels are distinguished, "high" and "low", although one might argue that the unstressed syllables have a third, "middle", level. Often, pronouncing a word with the wrong pitch will sound odd, but not cause any misunderstandings. There are, however, a number of words that are distinguished only by the accent, and a sizable group of words that have a distinct tonal stress. Most of these words are bisyllabic words with the stress on the first syllable. Examples: "búren" the cage - "bùren" carried"régel" a rule - "règel" a latch"slágen" the blows - "slàgen" beaten. There is a vague general tendency towards interpreting bisyllabic words with an initial high pitch as nouns, while words with a initial low pitch "feels" more like verbs, participles and adjectives. Swedish nouns are divided into declensions depending on their stem, http://casinobitcoininall.top/words/spelling-games-common-words-1.html the plural is formed, and on their gender which is either 'uter' or 'neuter'. In Old Swedish, also accusative and dative, which has survived in a few standard phrases. Inflection by case is rather trivial: the genitive is the nominative with an "s" suffixed, if the word doesn't already end in an "s" sound, in which case nothing or, optionally, an apostrope is added. A few words and names borrowed from Latin have latin genitives, although it is possible to ignore this and treat them like other words. Note: some grammarians today seem to prefer to analyse the genetive constructions of modern Swedish as created with an enclitic particle S instead of as a separate case form. They seem to do this as a way of explaining the casual tendency of making genetive of phrases by adding S to the last word of the phrase instead of the head noun. A similar tendency can sometimes be observed in casual English, e. However, this doesn't explain the genitive of pronouns, and doesn't seem to contribute anything useful for someone trying to learn Swedish, so let's stick with the traditional approach where the genitive is treated as a case form. There are essentially five declensions: First declension, plural indefinite on -or. There are two groups of words within this declension, those that have a singular indefinite suffix -a, and those that use the bare stem. The words with an -a suffix in the singular indefinite uses -an to make the singular definite. The other words use -en. All words in this declension are uter. Second declension, plural indefinite on -ar. Like the first declension, the second also has two primary groups of words; those that add -e in singular indefinite, and those which use the bare stem. The singular definite has an -en suffix. All words in this declension are uter. Third declension, plural indefinite on - e r. Words of this declension always use the bare stem for the singular indefinite, and add - e n or - e t in the singular definite. There are both neuter and uter words in this declension. Fourth declension, plural indefinite on - e n. Singular indefinite: bare stem. Singular definite: - e t. There are only neuter words in this declension. Plural indefinite: bare stem. Singular indefinite: bare stem. Singular definite: - e t or - e n. There are both neuter and uter words in this declension. All nouns, except neuters of the fifth declension and some irregular words, add -na to the indefinite plural to form the definite plural. But words with a plural already ending in "n" do not usually double this "n" except in special cases, most of which concern words that are irregular for other reasons, too. Fifth-declension neuters have definite plurals on -en. Inflection paradigm for the five declensions: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th a 5th b sg. However, in the sg. Forms such as konstaplen are possible, but often sound strange or archaic, and their use nowadays tends to be limited to poetry and humourous contexts. The third declension contains some neuter words, in which case the sg. One example is parti, a word with several barely related meanings, inflected thus: parti, partiet, partier, partierna. Umlaut plurals A number of words form plural with umlaut, i. Sometimes, this causes a loss of the suffix. This phenomenon occurs in English too, e. Usually, if a word has umlaut plural in English and the English word sounds similar to the Swedish one, the Swedish word also forms plural with umlaut, since both languages have then typically inherited the word from older Germanic sources. Some Swedish words with umlaut plurals are: en man - män manen fot - fötter footen hand - händer handen tand - tänder toothen rand - ränder stripe, edgeett land - länder land, countryen strand - stränder shore, beachen brand - bränder fire, conflagrationen fader - fäder fatheren broder - bröder brotheren moder - mödrar motheren son - söner sonen dotter - döttrar daughteren bok - böcker booken rot - rötter rooten gås - gäss gooseen and - änder a kind of ducken mus - möss mouse. Additionally, some words have the length of a vowel reduced without changing vowel, since the vowel has umlaut form already. An example is en nöt - nötter nut. Note also that the family words fader fathermoder mother and broder brother have short variant forms of the indefinite singulars. These drop the - de- giving: far, mor, bror. This contraction only occurs in the singular indefinite, however. In casual slang, these contractions can then be extended by adding -sa, giving farsa, morsa, brorsa, which are inflected as first-declension nouns in all forms. Although the word syster sister doesn't have this kind of short form, it does have a variant of the casual slang form: syrra. Another thing to note that the noun man man has different plurals depending on nuances of meaning. In the meaning of man as opposed to woman, the plural is män. Shifting stress A number of word, mostly Latin loan-words ending in - or, shift the position of the stress when a word is inflected in such a manner that the number of syllables increases; these words are uters of the third declension, and typically, the stress is shifted so it always falls on the penultimate syllable. A spelling games common words of technical words, especially electrical and electronical components are also of this type: resistor, termistor thermal resistorvaristor variable resistorkondensator capacitorinduktor inducer, inductortransduktor transducermotor motor, enginestator non-moving active part in electrical motordonator donor. Some more examples whose meaning are essentially the same as the English words they resemble are: sektor, mentor, rotor, promotor, reaktor, extraktor, gladiator, generator, senator, doktor. This also causes a shift of tonal accent, where the stressed long vowel has the low tone. Irregular nouns A small number of nouns are simply irregular in their inflection, and have to learned separately. Two very common ones are öga eye and öra earwhich happen to be irregular in exactly the same way. Foreign inflections for some loan-words Much as in English, some Latin and Greek loan-words can be inflected according to their native inflection paradigms instead of the Swedish ones. In some older text, this was fairly frequent, and it is occasionally still used today, although mostly in formal or religious contexts, and for some technical terms where the Swedish suffixes are phonetically awkward to combine with the foreign word. Today, the foreign inflections are mostly limited to names, certain professional titles, and technical terms, and are in most cases considered optional, with native Swedish inflections being equally acceptable. Consequently, this section is perhaps mainly of interest to readers of older or literary Swedish texts. Words that have lost their original suffix in the borrowing process usually because they were borrowed indirectly via another language are normally inflected as regular Swedish words even in texts that otherwise use Latin and Greek forms for other loan-words. So, for example, "ett schema" schedule, schematic, schemawhich has been borrowed unchanged from Greek "σχῆμα", and which has the regular Swedish indefinite plural "scheman", can alternatively use the plural form "schemata", mirroring the Greek plural "σχήματᾰ"; but "en katastrof" disaster, catastrophe which comes from Greek "καταστροφή", but which has dropped the Greek ending "-ή", only has the Swedish indefinite plural "katastrofer"; it is not an acceptable alternative to use "katastrofai" mirroring the Greek plural "καταστροφαί" as the Swedish plural. In most cases, the foreign nominative singular or plural serves the function of all those three cases. Typically, one of these three strategies is used: a ignore the distinction and use the foreign form as though it was both definite and indefinite, b add a Swedish suffix for definiteness to the inflected foreign form when the definite form is needed, or c fall back to using native Swedish inflection for the definite forms. The first strategy, to use the foreign forms entirely, was probably the most common and regarded as the most strictly correct, especially for religious and academic titles, offices and objects e. However, losing the distinction between definite and indefinite form was sometimes a disadvantage, leading to compromises in the form of the other two strategies described. The name "Jesus" doesn't inflect that way in Latin, however, but rather has a genitive of "Jesu", and that form is often seen also in older Swedish texts. For names ending in "-a", such as "Maria" and "Jesaja", the Latin genitive would end in "-ae", but this is typically reduce to just "-a", making it look like the uninflected nominative is used as a genitive. An example of this is "Uppsala domkyrka" Uppsala Cathedral. However, it should be noted that the phonetic variation with "-e" doesn't normally occur for such names, and that despite the resemblance with the reduced Latin genitives, those genitives may have a different origin, or a mixed origin influenced by Latin but also by other factors. There are mainly three such other factors: an older Swedish genitive in "-a" strictly only applicable to plural wordsan older Swedish genitive in "-ar" with a weak "r" sound applicable in singular, but mainly to words of feminine genderand the possibility of constructing that type of names as compounds as is common in English todaywhich in Swedish calls for using the stem of the word instead of the genitive form. For Swedish words ending in "-a", the "-a" is often part of the stem. Use of the Latin-style genitives tends to be limited to names of historical or religious figures. Although not exactly common, inflections of this type are still used today now and then. An unusually handled word to note in this context is the Latin loan-word "museum", where the Latin form is used for the nominative singular, but where the Latin stem "muse-" is used together with Swedish inflection suffixes for other forms. Another such group of words are singulars on "-on" with plural on "-a", but most such words are found in the form of technical terms and phrases that rarely occur in everyday speech. An example is "hapax legomenon" Greek "ἅπαξ λεγόμενον", " something said only once", a linguistic term for a word or phrase occuring only in a single place spelling games common words a particular corpus of text; for that, which the Greek-style plural "hapax legomena" could be used, or it can be inflected with Swedish suffixes, sg. In Swedish, adjectives are inflected according to the number, gender and definiteness of the word they qualify no matter whether the adjective is in attributive or predicative position, i. In older Swedish, adjectives were also inflected according to case. Regular adjectives typically have three different forms: singular indefinite uter, singular indefinite neuter, and a common form for the other six possible variations on number, gender and definiteness. The first of these three forms is referred to as the "basic" or "uninflected" form, and is the form normally found in dictionaries. There is also a fourth form, a masculine variant of the definite form, and which consists of changing the final "-a" of the common definite form to "-e" in those cases where that form doesn't already end in "-e". Use of this form is optional nowadays. Regular adjectives derive their second form by suffixing a -t to the basic form. This means that the first and second form of adjectives such as "svart" black and "fast" firm, solid are spelled and pronounced the same. The third form of regular adjectives is obtained by suffixing an -a to the basic form. Note on spelling: if the basic form ends in an short vowel plus an "m" or an "n", the consonant is doubled before adding the -a. In addition to "pure" adjectives, participles can also function as adjectives. The present participle always end in "- e nde", and is normally not inflected when used as an adjective. In all cases above where the definite form ends in "-a", the traditional-style masculine form is obtained by changing that "-a" to an "-e"; thus: " gröne", " vite", " vide", " svarte", " lille" and " slitne"; but with no separate masculine form for " målade", and no separate masculine form for the plural " små". Comparatives and superlatives Much like Spelling games common words, Swedish has comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives, and can form them in two ways: by suffix, or by using mer more and mest most. Most monosyllabic adjectives always form comparatives and superlatives by suffixing, adding -are for comparative and -ast for superlative, e. Other adjectives with more than one syllable in the stem tend to go with mer and mest, although some bisyllabic and the occasional polysyllabic word stressed on the last syllable of the stem waver and can use suffixes as well, e. A small group of adjectives have irregular forms in this respect. The probably most significant of these are: få-färre-- few, fewer, no superlative form stor-större-störst largeliten-mindre-minst smallhög-högre-högst high, tall about objectslång-längre-längst long, tall about peoplelåg-lägre-lägst lowbra-bättre-bäst gooddålig-sämre-sämst bad. In an attributive position, the irregular superlatives take the suffix of definiteness -a, or -e in the optional masculine formwhile in predicative position, they remain in the form given here, e. Or, by an alternative grammatical analysis, one could say that the attributive form can function as a noun by itself. The latter group is straightforwardly formed just as when one would form an indefinite neuter singular adjective, so there isn't much more to say about them. Some prepositions can double as adverbs, sometimes in a sense very similar to the prepositional meaning, and sometimes in a slightly different sense. Examples: på onav preposition: of, from; adverb: offur out offrån preposition: from, adverb: a wide and vague sense of away, out of reach, ahead of, etci preposition: in, adverb: into. Some preposition+noun phrases have been contracted to adverbs, e. Some of these have become petrified and only exist in connection with a limited set of words, e. Some older adverbs and other words have petrified, much like the preposition+noun phrases mentioned above, into idiomatic adverbs with only a vague meaning of their own. The most common of these are probably an, till and för. Refer to the discussion about particle verbs for some more details about these words. Various directional, locational and demonstrative words can be considered adverbs, too; e. Much like English, Swedish has two kinds of number words, the cardinals "one", "two", etc and the ordinals "first", "second", etc. When millions and higher numbers are involved, they are usually broken off into a separate words, e. For legibility, thousands are sometimes also broken off into separate words, e. Large numbers than millions may not be so common, but there are several words for larger numbers: 1 000 000 miljon 1 000 000 000 miljard 1 000 000 000 000 biljon 1 000 000 000 000 000 biljard 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 triljon 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 triljard 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kvadriljon 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kvadriljard 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kvintriljon 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kvintriljard In principle, the list can continue with further stems borrowing Latin number words and adding alternatively "-iljon" and "-iljard", i. In cases when scientific notiation isn't likely to reduce the confusion, various fallbacks are used much like in English. One such fallback is to divide the number by a triljon, put the resulting number in the genitive, and then add triljon at the end, e. Some of the possessives have three forms, corresponding to the three forms of adjectives. The first form is the uter singular, the second is the neuter singular, and the third is the common plural. Note that the pronouns corresponding to "it" and "they" coincide with the definite article, but that the plural of the pronoun has a distinct object-case form dem, whereas the plural form of the definite article is always de. The reflexive pronoun refers to the agent of the sentence. It is used where "himself", "herself", "itself" or "themselves" would be used in English. The indefinite third-person pronoun "man" is gender neutral, but is not normally used to refer back to a specific person, but rather for indefinite general cases similar to the French pronoun "on", and to the way the English word "one" is sometimes used as a pronoun e. For gender-indefinite specific references, the uter pronoun "den" is sometimes used e. Another way of making gender-neutral references is by using the first-declension noun "människa", and then refer back to that by "den" or "hon" she, based on the word "människa" historically being grammatically feminine, and thus in some older and literary contexts being referred to with a grammatically gendered pronoun even though the reference isn't necessarily semantically gendered. Yet another way, which is employed especially in some formal contexts, is to use the noun "vederbörande" which is the present-tense participle of a verb meaning "concern", "affect", "refer to", "apply to", with the participle effectively meaning "the person in question". It should be noted that overuse of "vederbörande" tends to make a text sound bureaucratic, but also that it is sometimes used thus for humorous effect. Relative pronouns Relative pronouns typically introduce subordinate clauses, and typically follow another pronoun or a noun phrase, with the relative pronoun referring to the same things as the thing it follows, but with a new syntactic rôle in the subordinate clause. Swedish has two primary relative pronouns: som and vilken. Som is restricted in the sense that it cannot follow a preposition, it can't be inflected, and doesn't have a genitive form, while vilken is inflected to vilket in the neuter, vilka in plural so far exactly like an adjectiveand has the form vars in genitive. Sometimes, vars is said also to be the gentive of som; but it makes no practical difference. There are also some secondary relative pronouns, which occur now and then. They tend to be rare in colloquial speech, but are somewhat more frequent in literature and formal speech. Their usage is highly similar to their English counterparts. A few demonstrative pronouns, such as "där" there and "dit" thereto can also be used as relative pronouns. This differs from English, where it is instead the interrogative forms where, whither which doubles as relative pronouns. Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns are often structurally similar to personal pronouns, except that they typically have more emphasis, and serve a slightly different purpose. Whereas personal pronouns typically refer neutrally to something previously mentioned, demonstrative pronouns typically introduce new things, or in some other manner put special focus on something. Determinative pronouns Determinative pronouns aren't usually morphologically distinct pronouns, but rather a variation on the usage of definite or demonstrative pronouns. In Swedish, the definite article also functions as determinative pronoun, but is then followed by an indefinite noun which in turn is typically followed by a clause qualifying the noun phrase further. Both sentences can be translated as "Show me the house you want to live in! In the latter case plain demonstrativethe meaning is "Show me that particular house, which you want to live in", while the former determinative means "Show me the house that you want to live in! Indefinite pronouns The topic of indefinite pronouns is one where there may be larger than usual differences between different classification systems. In Swedish, in particular, there are quite a few words which can be counted either as adjectives or as indefinite pronouns, or both, especially considering that many adjectives in Swedish can freely be used as noun phrases without a head noun, in cases where for example English would often insert a filler word such as "one" or "thing" to take the place of the head noun. An example of this could be "skicka mig den gröna! Basically, indefinite pronouns are pronouns that don't have a specifically defined reference. Examples in English are words such as "all", "everyone", "nobody", "something", "anyone" and "each". There are various ways of grouping indefinite pronouns. Here, I choose a morphological approach and divide them into three main groups: those that are similar to adjectives both in inflection and usage, those that are similar to adjectives in usage but less similar in inflection, and those that aren't similar to adjectives in either usage or inflection. Additionally, there are a number of set phrases that fill the grammatic and semantic function of indefinite pronouns, although since they aren't single words, its a matter of definition whether they should be counted as pronouns at all; but I will list a few of the most common ones below, after the three main groups. The following indefinite pronouns are inflected as adjectives, in the forms uter singular, neuter singular, and a common form for plural. Most of these words can be used both in an adjective-like manner to qualify a noun or noun phrase, and by itself as a complete object phrase. However, for most of the words listed below, the uter singular form stands out, either by rarely being used, or by being used to refer to people, while the neuter singular is used to refer to things. Used much like in English. The neuter singular on its own tends to mean "everything", while the plural tends to mean "everyone", although the plural can also mean "each and every thing". The uter singular is not normally used on its own, except possibly as a sentence fragment when responding to or supplementing a previous statement, typically in colloquial use such as " Vilken juice jag drack? Used much like in English. This is one of the words that use the uter singular on its own is used to refer to people, while the neuter singular on its own refers to things. When used as adjectives, however, the uter and neuter singular form reflects the grammatical gender of the noun it is used together with, no matter whether it is a person or a thing that it refers to. Used much like in English. This word behaves like "ingen, inget, inga" above when the singular forms are used on their own, with "ingen" meaning "nobody" and "inget" meaning "nothing", but follow the grammatical gender of the head noun when used as adjectives. When used on its own, "somligt" means "some types of things", while "somliga" means "some type of people" or "some people" sometimes with a mildly exasperated or derogatory tone, much as can be the case with the English phrase "some people". The uter singular is not normally used on its own. This word can be used as an adjective meaning "other" or as a noun meaning "another" or, for the plural, "some others". However, when used a noun, it behaves fully as a noun and requires a definite or indefinite article when used in the singular. Thus for example, as an adjective, "en annan bok" another book"de andra böckerna" the other booksbut as a noun, "en annan" another"de andra" the others. Note, though, that no article is required in the indefinite plural, since regular Swedish nouns don't require that either. It may seem odd to have singular forms for a word meaning "many", and indeed, the usage of those forms would probably often be perceived as unusual or possibly even odd in casual speech, and their use is mainly restricted to literary contexts, older texts, and when a very specific nuance of meaning is required. But there is actually a very similar usage in English, where the colloquial language might say "they ate many apples" Swedish: de åt många äpplenbut where the literary language may instead choose to say "they ate many an apple" Swedish: de åt månget äpple. For obvious reasons, this word has no plural form. See "mången, månget, många" above. This word can be used as a regular adjective meaning simply "more, larger in number" as in " hämta fler servetter! However, the word can also be used in a non-comparative sense, with a meaning of "a number of" or more than just a few of", and in that sense, it is more similar to an indefinite pronoun. This word a a bit similar to an adjective in the sense that it has a comparative form in addition to its basic form. Traditional Swedish grammar considers this adjective to lack a superlative form, although by analogy with some regular adjectives with similar inflection, a superative form "färst" is occasionally used. However, that is traditionally considered a grammatically incorrect form; and aside from concerns of grammatical tradition, the form "färst" is a bit phonetically unwieldy, and easily misheard as "först" first"färs" mincemeator "värst" worst in casual speech, depending on dialect. Some more accepted alternatives when a superlative to "få" is called for are "minst" "least", the superlative of "liten", which means small"minst till antalet" least in numbersor for emphasis possibly longer phrases such as "de det finns minst av" those there are least of. Occasionally, the desire to avoid the form "färst" also leads to constructions such as "fåtaligast" literally: few-numbered'est or "mest fåtalig" literally: most few-numbered. When used as an indefinite pronoun, this word is similar to the French pronoun "on", and also to the way "one" is sometimes used in English. See also the notes about the pronoun "man" in the section on personal pronouns above. Older form still occasionally used, meaning "each person", "each an every one", "each person separately". Care should be take to not confuse this with the mutual-reflexive plural pronoun "varandra" which has a similar grammatical origin, but a different meaning. It is typically used as "de såg varandra" - "they saw each other". This form cannot be used as an adjective, only as a separate pronoun. This form cannot be used as an adjective, only as a separate pronoun. However, the genitive variant of this phrase, "vars och ens" and more rarely "varts och etts" can be used as a regular genetive to qualify a noun phrase. Other words and phrases can follow the relative pronoun before the ". Interrogative pronouns Being written. Composite pronouns and pronoun phrases Being written. In addition to the pronouns listed above, several more can be produced by combining pronouns with prepositions or special suffixes. In particular, the location pronouns "var" where"här" here and "där" there can be suffixed with any of a large number of simple prepositions as a suffix, e. Other pronouns and pronominal phrases Swedish has a reciprocal pronoun varandra, which corresponds well to the English phrase "each other" and sometimes "one another"e. It can only occur in object position in a sentence, and only when the subject is plural. A similar meaning can be expressed with the adverb vardera: "barnen fick en present vardera", which is more flexible since it allows including a number, e. The common element var which is a prefix to both varandra and varsin is an adverb meaning "each"; which is not to be confused with 1 the relative and interrogative pronoun var where2 the verb form var was3 the uncountable neuter noun var ichor, pusor 4 the nearly obsolete uter noun var warding, warder, care, caretaker which appears in some compound nouns such as gårdvar groundskeeper and bevar care, protection. Prepositions in Swedish work much like in English as stand-alone words, but can interact a bit more with verbs than they usually can in English, in the sense that they can be attached as a prefix to a verb, modifying the verb so that the noun phrase that would have been "governed" by the preposition instead become a direct object of the verb. However, the meaning of the verb can be altered as part of this process, so it is can reasonably be argued that this is not an action of the preposition itself, but rather a derivation of a new compound word which has a preposition and a verb as its components. Some of the most common such adverbs are på onav offom again; again but differently; into something elseutan outside, outer surfacein direction into; note difference from pronoun i. Some other adverbs often occurring together with prepositions are: fram forth, fore-bak a backut out directionbort awayute outside locationinne inside location. Also much like in English, Swedish prepositions can also be loosely joined with adverbs to form two-word units functioning as a single preposition, or sometimes even be made a compound word. Swedish verbs fall into one of five conjugations, the first three of which are termed "weak", because of their having undergone reduction and loss of the older Germanic stem changes. The fourth conjugation is often referred to as the "strong" conjugation, and the fifth as the "mixed" conjugation since it has a "strong" imperfect stem, but a "weak" supine. Swedish verbs are not inflected by person or number although they still used to be inflected by number as late as in the 1930'iesbut they are inflected by tense, mood, and voice. The names of the forms above are given in Swedish, but being borrowed from Latin, they are quite similar to the English terms, since these are also borrowed from Latin. The only notable differences are imperfekt which is the "was" tense, and pluskvamperfekt also known as konditionalis conditionalthe "had been" tense. The perfekt and pluskvamperfekt tenses are always formed with the present and imperfekt forms of the auxiliary verb ha to have followed by the supine of the main verb, much like in English. Passive forms of the verbs are in most cases formed by adding "s" to the corresponding active form. The only general exception is in the present tense, where the normal ending "-r" is usually dropped before adding the "s". Note, however, that a few verbs whose stem end in "r", such as styra to steer; to control; to governuse the bare verb stem in the present tense, and these verb do not drop their "-r" before the passive "-s". There are a number of verbs that are irregular in the way they form the present and imperfekt tense. Sometimes the infinitive is added as a fourth form, at either the beginning or the end of the tema. The infinitive is usually signalled explicitly by the infinitive marker att. To be added: an overview of all five conjugations. To be added: verb theme umlaut patterns. The most common conjunctions in Swedish are och andeller or and men but. They are used much like their English counterparts. Och and eller can be used to connect sentences as well as elements in a noun phrase. More to be written here. More to be written here. Swedish syntax is fairly straightforward for someone used to English, but there are a few things that differ. The probably most noticable part is that Swedish sentences often use inverted word order the verb before the subject to indicate questions, conditionals and consecutives. Inverted word order is also used when the sentence starts with an adverbial or when any object of the verb is placed at the front of the sentence. Note that both sub-sentences in the spelling games common words example uses inverted word order. More to be written here. The grammatical gender of Swedish nouns are essentially a property of the word that has to be learned together with the word itself. In a number of cases, one can make reasonable guesses based on the form of the word, but this is not always the case. The spelling games common words simple situation is if you already know the singular definite form of the word, in which case the word is a uter word if it ends in -n, and a neuter word if it ends in -t. But it is the singular indefinite that is the traditional dictionary form. The simple situations Words ending in - a usually belong to the first declension, in which there are only uter words. Exceptions to the - a rule exist, but they are few; two common exceptions are öga eye and öra ear which are irregular neuters. They are inflected thus: öga, ögat, ögon, ögonen; öra, örat, öron, öronen. Another common exception is hjärta heartwhich is a regular neuter of the fourth declension. Some derivational suffixes belong to predictable declensions and genders, e. Other words ending in - e can be either uters of the second declension, e. Chemical elements and other substances and materials ending in - e are usually also fourth-declension neuters, e. Present participle used as a noun The present participle has a suffix - e nde and can be used as a noun whose gender and inflection depends on whether it refers to the acting person uter or the abstract action neuter. As a uter word, the participle is not inflected by number or definiteness although it is inflected by case, meaning an - s suffix in the genetive case. As a neuter word, it is inflected as a neuter noun of the fourth declension. Thus: en gående, den gående, två gående, de två gående; but ett gående, det gåendet, två gåenden, de två gåendena. Other nouns For words ending in other ways than the ones mentioned in the previous sections, guessing the gender from the morphological form of the singular indefinite is more difficult. Swedish, much like English, has a number of verbs that change their meanings in the presence of certain adverbs and particles. Some examples of this phenomenon in English are: set off, set up, put on, put up with, give in, tell someone off. These are referred to as partikelverb, particle verbs in English also called phrasal verbs. Unlike English, but like German, the Swedish adverbs and particles can shift between being used as a verb prefix and as separate words. This difference in stress is usually not indicated in writing, although it can be indicated by underlining or italics as any other emphasis, if required to avoid ambiguity. It should also be noted that there exist some more firm compound verbs that cannot causally be split into two words, and that the forms of such firm compounds occasionally coincide with the kind of particle verbs that are the main subject of this appendix; sometimes with completely different meanings. Some compound verbs of this type will also be listed below, given in the compound for, as opposed to the particle verbs that are usually given in their two-word form except when the two-word form is rare or has a different meaning. Lastly, it should be noted that this appendix only gives an overview of some common particle verbs, and is far from a complete list. Non-compound use: take some part of x. More common in questions than statements, e. Note non-compound use: get oneself to x, manage to go to x; e. We're planning to go to Stockholm this weekend. The two-word form is mainly used about plants, switches and other things that are physically rearranged in nearly the same place, while the prefix form mainly refers to abstract transactions. Usually with a suggestion of increasing the pace, perhaps for some final stage of some kind of competition. In other words, this Swedish phrase has about the same ambiguities as the corresponding English one. Note: deponent always-passive form. Note that the verb itself is in the passive form, and that the subject is typically plural.